那些让“耳朵怀孕”的声音是怎样跑进人耳的?
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郗昕

中国人民解放军总医院耳鼻咽喉科研究所研究员

声音是怎样传入人耳的?
耳朵由外耳、中耳及内耳三部分组成。
外耳由耳廓和外耳道组成,外耳道又俗称耳朵眼儿。外耳道的最顶端是一个鼓膜,声波从外耳道直接敲击鼓膜,鼓膜就会振动起来。
中耳内有三块人体内最小的骨头构成的听骨链,当鼓膜振动后,后面的听骨链也随之振动。听骨链的最顶端是一个叫镫骨的结构,它能够把这个机械振动像液压机一样传递到内耳结构中。


内耳有三条可控制身体平衡的半规管和声音的最后接收器耳蜗。镫骨的前后振动使得内耳中的液体形成波浪式的振动,耳蜗中毛细胞上的纤毛随之摆动,细胞就产生了动作电位,形成神经冲动


神经冲动最终沿着听神经,传到我们的大脑,大脑皮层把接收到的电信号进行处理,并知晓声音所表达的含义,随之产生相应反应,这就是人听到声音的基本原理。
总之,声音是通过外耳、中耳、内耳、听神经,一直传达到大脑皮层,我们才完成了整个听觉的过程。
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